Item 1 Q1 – Summary

When viewing websites with the intention of gaining reliable knowledge and information, it is important to be sure that they are accurate and credible. As stated by Fogg, ‘The web can be a highly credible source of information,’ but ‘can be one of the least credible information sources’ (Fogg, 2003). The reason for this is that each webpage is designed by someone different. Whether the web page is representing a company or an individual, there will always be someone behind its design and information. Practically anyone can make a web page these days, and are free to write what they wish on said web pages, because of this it is important to ensure that the information being used is genuine, and to not be misled. As a student it is especially important to verify your sources and ensure that the information that you are receiving is correct and credible, or it could get quite embarrassing and damaging to your work. For example if you were researching the Second World War, and you found a website that claimed the war began in 1934 instead of 1939, stating that as a fact in your essay would not look good. Because of this it is recommended to check information with other sources to ensure that it is reliable.


Stanford Guidelines for Web Credibility. (2002). Retrieved from Stanford website:


How to determine Website Credibility. (n.d.). Retrieved from eHow website:


Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers

to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann




Item 1 Q2 – Wikipedia

Wikipedia is not considered to be a reliable source of information for students simply because anyone is free to add or alter information that is posted. With this comes the risk that information that has been added has not come from a reliable source and could be misleading to the reader. Although Wikipedia appears to be a reliable academic website (and I recall being told to use it in high school), it carries great risks and all information taken from it must be checked with other sources to ensure its reliability. In many cases entire stories or pages of ‘factual information’ on Wikipedia have been fabricated by other users, for example I recall a friend of mine posting a page about ‘National Shake Your Booty Day’ because she wanted it to become a holiday. The information posted on Wikipedia is not automatically reliable simply because it is on a website. There is no guarantee that the person posting it knows what they are talking about and it is much more reliable to gain your information from an expert in the field, rather than a stranger.

Because there are no ways of telling if information gained from Wikipedia is reliable, it is simply wiser and easier to avoid Wikipedia altogether. There is no guarantee that the person who posted the information knows much more about it than you do.


Item 1 Q3 – Anticipated Issues

– The site requires a paid subscription to gain access: Foggs’ research has indicated that this has become an issue, with both the 1999 and 2002 research groups responding unfavourably to it. A website demanding money in exchange for access is usually perceived as being immediately suspicious and raises concerns about theft, blackmail and fraud. As our already paranoid society gets bombarded with stories of stolen identity and theft through the internet, a website demanding money will immediately reduce its credibility and many people will close the page as soon as money is mentioned.

– The site takes a long time to Download: Many internet users have grown accustomed to receiving fast access to information, making some internet users impatient. Because of this when a page takes too long to load many users will simply abandon it as it indicated that there is a fault in the websites design, or in some cases, it indicates that the website may be trying to download ‘something else’ onto your computer. With our growing concerns for privacy and safety on the internet, this will become a greater issue as we become more accustomed to fast connections and downloads, and less tolerable of having to wait patiently.


Item 2 Q1 – Credibility Web page examples

Presumed Credibility – Australian Red Cross website

The Australian Red Cross website is an example of Presumed credibility as it is a well known charity organization and is recognized by many users as being a reliable non-profit organization.

Australian Red Cross. (2011). Retrieved from Australian Red Cross website:

Reputed Credibility – WebMD








WebMD is a widely recognized Heath website that is used to promote healthy options and provide a ‘Symptom Checker’ for people who may be suffering from physical ailments, but does not provide drug recommendations, diagnosis, or medial treatment to its users. In the bottom right of the web page it can be seen that the website is endorsed by TRUSTe, URAC and HONcode (indicating that it has received the Health On the Net certificate). 

WebMD. (2011). Retrieved from WebMD website:

Surface Credibility – University of New South Wales

Our first impression of this website is that it is credible and reliable simply because it is and Educational website and is part of the University of New South Wales website. Without having to do any further investigations the user feels safe about the websites content because it is attached to a University.

 Cognitive Load Theory. (n.d.) Retrieved from UNSW Arts and Social Sciences website:

Earned Credibility – Krav Maga Australia + Oceania 

The Krav Maga Australia + Oceania website has been a reliable source of information on the Krav Maga martial arts. It has provided me with up to date information and support from others studying Krav Maga and accurate information for classes, equipment, camps and additional training. It is a well organized and run website that is reliable and has consistently provided all the information needed for students of Krav Maga.

 Krav Maga Australia + Oceana. (2011). Retrieved from Krav Maga website:


Item 1 Q1 – Performance Load

This article discusses the two types of Performance Load: Cognitive and Kinematic and how they contribute to Performance Time and the increase and decrease of possible errors.Cognitive Load is our Working Memory (WM) and Long Term Memory (LTM).To put it simply Working Memory is ‘the part of our brain that consciously processes information, dominates everything we do in terms of learning’ (Malamed, C. (n.d). Working memories tend to have a small capacity, unlike Long Term Memories, that seem to have a never ending capacity. Kinematic Load is the physical requirements needed in order to complete a goal, it is the ‘number of steps or movements, or amount of force – required to accomplish a goal’ (Lidwell, W. (2003) pp. 148-149). Through minimising the amount of Kinematic Load and Cognitive Load required to complete a given task, you make the Performance Load less, decrease the chances of errors and reduce performance time. 

Malamed, C. (n.d.) What is Cognitive Load? Retrieved from The elearning coach website:

Cognitive Load Theory. (n.d.) Retrieved from UNSW Arts and Social Sciences website:

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp.148‐149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Valcke, Martin (01/01/2002). “Cognitive Load: Updating the Theory?”. Learning and instruction (0959-4752), 12 (1),  147.


Item 1 Q2 – ‘Chunking’

‘Chunking’ refers to the organisation of information into chunks in order to make it easier for out Cognitive brain to remember. As our Cognitive brain usually only remembers 4 – 5 bits of information at a time (Malamed, C. (n.d)) through ‘chunking’ or organizing information into groups we are able to remember more. For example, when remembering a household phone number we tend to break it into two chunks (0000-0000), rather than just a long line of numbers. We do this because it is far easier to remember two chunks of four, rather than eight individual numbers. The longer the list of numbers, the more chunks we break it down into (Chunking. (2010)). We often see chunking techniques being present in websites in order to effectively organize and communicate information that is ‘scannable’ to the reader. By grouping information together it is more organized, easier to find and is more likely to be remembered in these ‘chunks’ than if the information were to be scattered throughout the page.  There are many different chunking techniques, such as organizing information in order of meaning, category or patterns so that, ‘when you find a pattern in information you just need to remember the pattern rather than a list of separate pieces of information’ (Chunking. (2010)).

Chunking. (2010). Retrieved from Skills Tool Box website:

Malamed, C. (n.d.) What is Cognitive Load? Retrieved from The elearning coach website:


Item 1 Q3 – Psychology in Design

A study of psychology is necessary in design if you wish to effectively communicate with your audience. The psychological effects of colour, text layout, pictures and overall presentation are important in drawing in your audience and keeping them. If you were to design a website about the benefits of Meditation, you would not have flashing banners and bright red images, you would design it with calming colours in mind such as green, blue and white and if you were to have changing images, you would have them softly fade into one another, rather than flashing around the screen. This is all to create a calm environment that aids what you are attempting to communicate to the user. Likewise if you were attempting to advertise Paintball to young men, you would not go with the calm meditation approach. In design you must focus on your target audience and cater to what they will relate to and care about.